A study of the mt DNA of 708 Koreans sampled from six provinces of South Korea (134 from Seoul-Gyeonggi, 118 from Jeolla, 117 from Chungcheong, 114 from Gangwon, 113 from Jeju, and 112 from Gyeongsang) found that they belonged to haplogroup D (35.5%, including 14.7% D4(x D4a, D4b), 7.8% D4a, 6.5% D5, 6.4% D4b, and 0.14% D(x D4, D5)), haplogroup B (14.8%, including 11.0% B4 and 3.8% B5), haplogroup A (8.3%), haplogroup M7 (7.6%), haplogroup F (7.1%), haplogroup M8'CZ (6.5%), haplogroup G (6.1%), haplogroup N9a (5.2%), haplogroup Y (3.8%), haplogroup M9 (2.7%), haplogroup M10 (1.6%), haplogroup M11 (0.42%), haplogroup N(x N9, Y, A, F, B4, B5) (0.28%), and haplogroup N9(x N9a) (0.14%)."Certain outliers in Model II (SE Korea) display some similarity to the people of Kobe", "possible that the outliers in the GU and Kobe (KB) populations could be of Siberian lineage", "GR and US populations showed average signals in the Korean Peninsula""(SW Korea) are closer to Mongolians than are the other two regions in the genome map", "This region also showed connections with populations in Tokyo", "in the NJ tree, nodes for SW Korea are close to those in Japan" Estimating the size, growth rate, sex ratio, and age structure of North Korea's population has been extremely difficult.
Until release of official data in 1989, the 1963 edition of the North Korea Central Yearbook was the last official publication to disclose population figures.
After 1963 demographers used varying methods to estimate the population.
They either totalled the number of delegates elected to the Supreme People's Assembly (each delegate representing 50,000 people before 1962 and 30,000 people afterwards) or relied on official statements that a certain number of persons, or percentage of the population, was engaged in a particular activity.
The study said that "[c]ommon ancestry and/or extensive gene flow" historically between Koreans and Japanese appears to be "likely" and results in a lot of difficulty finding population-specific alleles that could assist in differentiating Koreans and Japanese.
Hideo Matsumoto, professor emeritus at Osaka Medical College, tested Gm types, genetic markers of immunoglobulin G, of Korean populations for a 2009 study.
Koreans mainly live in the two Korean nation states, South Korea and North Korea (collectively referred to simply as Korea), but are also an officially recognized minority in China, Vietnam, Japan and Philippines, plus a number of former Soviet states, such as Russia and Uzbekistan.
The other half of the Korean mt DNA pool consists of an assortment of various haplogroups, each found with relatively low frequency, such as G, N9, Y, F, D5, M7, M8, M9, M10, M11, R11, C, and Z.Considering the geographic distance of Amerindians from Devil's Gate Cave, Amerindians are unusually genetically close to the human remains from Devil's Gate Cave.Korean genomes display similar traits to Japanese genomes on genome-wide SNP data. 2% total), J, Y*(x A, C, DE, J, K), L, C-RPS4Y(x M105, M38, M217), and C-M105.Korean genomes have displayed both southern and northern Asian mt DNA and Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups. Haplogroup D4 is the modal mt DNA haplogroup among Koreans and among Northeast Asians in general.
Other haplogroups that have been found less commonly in samples of Korean males are Y-DNA haplogroup N-M231 (approx. Haplogroup B, which occurs very frequently in many populations of Southeast Asia, Polynesia, and the Americas, is found in approximately 10% (5/48 ethnic Koreans from Arun Banner, Inner Mongolia) to 20% (21/103 Koreans from South Korea) of Koreans.
Matsumoto said that Gm afb1b3 is a southern marker gene, and Matsumoto that the average frequency of Gm afb1b3 for Koreans was 14.7% which was intermediate between a frequency of 10.6% for general Japanese and a frequency of 24.1% for Beijing Han.