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Because we are often interested in the relations or ratios between the pitches (known as intervals) rather than the precise pitches themselves in describing a scale, it is usual to refer to all the scale pitches in terms of their ratio from a particular pitch, which is given the value of one (often written 1/1), generally a note which functions as the tonic of the scale.For interval size comparison, cents are often used.There are two main families of tuning systems: equal temperament and just tuning.Equal temperament scales are built by dividing an octave into intervals which are equal on a logarithmic scale, which results in perfectly evenly divided scales, but with ratios of frequencies which are irrational numbers.A musical scale is a discrete set of pitches used in making or describing music.The most important scale in the Western tradition is the diatonic scale but many others have been used and proposed in various historical eras and parts of the world.

There is no case in musical harmony where, if a given pitch be considered accordant, that its octaves are considered otherwise.Therefore, any note and its octaves will generally be found similarly named in musical systems (e.g.all will be called doh or A or Sa, as the case may be).When expressed as a frequency bandwidth an octave A spans from 110 Hz to 220 Hz (span=110 Hz).

The next octave will span from 220 Hz to 440 Hz (span=220 Hz).The term "plan" is also used in architecture, to which musical form is often compared.

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